Mr Nigel Horlock

Consultant Plastic & Reconstructive Surgeon


Government Urges Cosmetic Clinics to Screen for Mental Health Problems

Posted by on May 10, 2019 in blog | Comments Off on Government Urges Cosmetic Clinics to Screen for Mental Health Problems

Cosmetic clinics which are members of the Joint Council for Cosmetic Practitioners (JCCP), will now need to screen patients for mental health problems. After meeting with NHS England, the JCCP agreed to include the new measures within its practice.

The move comes as an increasing number of young people suffering from mental health issues, turn to plastic surgery to attempt to overcome their body hang-ups. Under the new guidelines, cosmetic clinics will screen patients for mental health issues, referring them to the NHS for treatment where necessary.

Quick fix cosmetic procedures don’t help solve mental health issues

The new screening procedure guidelines are set to help those who are psychologically vulnerable.

In particular, patients suffering from conditions such as Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD), often turn to cosmetic surgery in the hope of fixing what they perceive to be wrong. However, in most cases, the perceived physical flaws these patients think they are suffering with, are purely in the mind. This means, even when the appearance is altered, it won’t change how the patient feels about their looks. In some cases, it could even make the condition worse.

A top doctor from the NHS claims cosmetic clinics aren’t doing enough to protect these patients, calling for screening to be introduced.

New measures hope to combat issues early

Experts hope the new measures introduced for members of JCCP will help to combat issues with mental health early on.

If patients are assessed and found to be suffering from mental health conditions, they can be referred to the relevant NHS facilities if required. This will help to ensure more patients are receiving help early on, rather than the NHS being left to pick up the pieces from patients who have undergone surgery which has further impacted their mental health.

The new measures will include practitioners undergoing online training to recognise the symptoms and signs of mental illness.

Government urges all clinics to follow suit

At the moment, only members of JCCP are required to carry out mental health screening. Therefore, the government is urging independent clinics to follow suit.

It’s not just surgical procedures practitioners should screen for either. Doctors claim even non-invasive procedures such as Botox and lip fillers shouldn’t be carried out before screening is completed. This is because a lot of patients suffering from mental health disorders are likely to start by undergoing simple, non-invasive procedures.

All patients need to be aware of the risks

It’s not just patients suffering from mental health issues who need to be aware of the risks of non-invasive procedures. According to statistics, the number of complaints regarding non-surgical procedures has increased by as much as 600% in recent years. This is largely because many patients don’t understand the risks involved.

Overall, these new guidelines have been branded a major step forward, but this still relies on individual clinics and practitioners choosing to adopt these measures. One way for patients to protect themselves is to ensure that their practitioner is a member of an association committed to ensuring patient safety; Mr Nigel Horlock is a member of BAAPS and BAPRAS, the two leading independent plastic surgery associations in the UK.

Blepharoplasty is in Top 5 Cosmetic Procedures Last Year

Posted by on Apr 27, 2019 in blog | Comments Off on Blepharoplasty is in Top 5 Cosmetic Procedures Last Year

New figures have recently been released in the US, highlighting the most popular cosmetic procedures of 2018. While the majority of surgical procedures focused on the body, there were a couple of facial procedures which made it to the top five.

Blepharoplasty, or eyelid lift surgery, came in at number three, with a staggering 206,529 procedures carried out. Although this is a 1% decrease from the year before, it shows just how popular the procedure still is.

What is blepharoplasty surgery and what are its benefits?

Blepharoplasty is a type of surgery used to enhance the appearance of the eyelids. It can be carried out on the upper, lower, or both eyelids. It can be used to simply alter the cosmetic appearance of the eyelids, or to improve functionality.

eyelid lift

The surgery can be used to correct a number of issues, including loose or sagging skin, dropping lower eyelids, fatty deposits which result in puffiness underneath the eyes, and for excess skin or wrinkles in the lower eyelid.

It’s common for the eyelids to sag with age as the skin loses its elasticity. Generally speaking, surgery on the upper eyelids can help you to appear more youthful as well as improve vision, while surgery on the lower eyelids can reduce puffiness and wrinkles.

Understanding eyelid lift surgery

Blepharoplasty surgery can be carried out under either general or local anaesthetic. Cuts will usually be made along the natural line of the eyelids. Then, the surgeon will remove excess skin, sagging muscle and extra fat if required. Afterwards, the skin will be stitched up. It’s a fairly straightforward procedure, though it is recommended you choose a surgeon who has extensive experience in this type of surgery.

Choosing the right surgeon will ensure you experience the best results and reduce the risks and complications associated with the procedure.

The risks and complications

Like any surgical procedure, there are risks and complications of blepharoplasty that you need to be aware of. Scarring is one of the leading concerns, although most will fade within 12 to 18 months after the surgery. There is the risk that instead of fading, the scarring could become thicker, painful or red and additional surgery may be required to correct it.

Other risks and complications include:

  • Bleeding
  • Swelling, pain and bruising
  • Infection
  • Healing troubles

Mr Nigel Horlock will run through all of the risks and complications involved during your consultation. In order to reduce these risks, patients should only undergo the procedure when they are generally healthy.

Is there an alternative option?

As there are a lot of different cosmetic surgery procedures available these days, there may be an alternative option to blepharoplasty. For example, if the eyebrows and forehead are sagging, it could make the eyelids appear as though they are sagging too. In this instance, a brow lift would resolve the problem.

So, before opting for a blepharoplasty procedure, patients are advised to undergo a consultation to determine exactly which type of procedure would prove most beneficial. Why not call us today to book a consultation and discover the best course of treatment to fit your requirements?

New device could minimise cosmetic surgery scarring

Posted by on Apr 16, 2019 in blog | Comments Off on New device could minimise cosmetic surgery scarring

When patients undergo surgical cosmetic surgery, one of the biggest concerns is scarring. All cosmetic surgery procedures involve incisions made into the skin so you will always be left with a scar, which will hopefully flatten and fade over time but will never disappear entirely. Now, researchers from the Binghamton University, of the State University of New York, have come up with a new device which could help to minimise scarring from cosmetic surgery.

cosmetic surgery scarring

So, what is this new device and how likely are we to see it on the market?

The device is said to be able to determine the orientation of skin tensions lines. Skin tension lines are used to aid cosmetic surgeons to make the least conspicuous cuts. If a cut is made in the wrong place or direction, it could lead to the development of keloid scarring. However, if cuts are made in the right place, it helps the wounds to heal quicker and scarring will be minimised. That is where this new device comes in.

It is able to accurately measure the skin’s tension lines. While there are other devices which can currently do this already on the market, they typically need more than one measurement. The devices which do only require one measurement, are also limited to measuring an accuracy of 45 degrees. So, this new device is considered much more accurate and reliable than the existing methods.

The new device is capable of providing accurate measurements, unique to each individual patient, within just a few seconds.

How can it help with cosmetic surgery scarring?

At the moment, surgeons rely upon either manual manipulation or skin tension line maps. There are a lot of different skin tension line maps to choose from and manual manipulation can be inaccurate

However, there is still a way to go before the device will hit the market. Further trials involving an increased number of patients will be required to determine just how effective it is. Researchers are then hopeful that it will enter the mainstream market, becoming a commonplace piece of equipment in operating theatres.

In the meantime, there are certain steps your cosmetic surgeon will make to minimise scarring.

How your cosmetic surgeon minimises cosmetic surgery scarring

During your consultation, Mr Nigel Horlock will take a full medical history to rule out any pre-existing medical conditions, such as certain thyroid problems or diabetes, that could affect the body’s ability to heal. He will also ask how previous scars have healed as some patients suffer from keloid scarring; this is where the scar tissue grows excessively, and the scar is red, raised and larger than the original wound.

Your cosmetic surgery procedure will also be carefully planned, particularly in terms of placement of the incisions. If possible, they will be sited in the natural creases and folds of the body, but also Mr Horlock will take into account the skin tension lines to ensure optimal scarring.

He will also advise wearing a specially designed compression garment in the post-surgery period as they support the integrity of the wound as it is healing and helps to prevent the overgrowth of scarring tissue.

During your pre-surgery consultation, Mr Horlock will discuss the potential scarring that you can expect as well as give advice on how best to promote the healing process and minimise scarring. Call 02380 914504 to arrange your cosmetic surgery consultation.

The Right Reasons to Choose Cosmetic Surgery

Posted by on Mar 22, 2019 in blog | Comments Off on The Right Reasons to Choose Cosmetic Surgery

After the announcement regarding Channel 4’s newly commissioned The Surjury TV show, plastic surgeons have expressed their concern over the message it delivers. The show sees young people put in front of a panel of judges who vote on whether or not each person should undergo cosmetic surgery.

The concern is that it trivialises the surgery and can potentially influence the younger generation to undergo procedures they may not even need. While cosmetic surgery can prove valuable at boosting confidence and self-esteem, when performed for the wrong reason, it could have negative consequences.

Here, we’ll look at the right reasons to choose cosmetic surgery.

You want to improve your confidence

One of the best reasons to opt for cosmetic surgery is to improve your confidence. However, it’s important to note that if you’re suffering from depression or a condition such as Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD), cosmetic surgery might not be the right choice for you.

While it can certainly improve confidence, if the problems stem from a mental illness, having the surgery may not provide you with the same level of confidence boost as you might expect. In fact, it could even make mental issues worse. So, it’s important to establish whether the surgery would simply boost your confidence, or whether you are using it as a solution for mental health issues.

You want to get it done for you

The ideal candidate for cosmetic surgery will have chosen to undergo the surgery after giving it serious thought. Is it something you’ve wanted to have done for a while now or did somebody suggest it for you?

A lot of people want to undergo cosmetic surgery to make somebody else happy, whether that be a partner or a family member. However, if you have cosmetic surgery to make somebody else happy, the chances are you won’t be happy with the results. It has to be something you want to have done, as well as something you’ve considered for a long time.

You want to look younger

Cosmetic surgery can do a lot of things, but one of its biggest advantages is helping you to look younger. There is a wide range of procedures, such as the facelift as well as many non-invasive ones that can minimise fine lines and wrinkles, as well as smooth out the complexion. A good cosmetic surgeon will ensure you still look like yourself, but just fresher and younger.

These are some of the best reasons to undergo cosmetic surgery. However, before deciding whether or not to go under the knife, it’s important to book a consultation with an experienced and qualified surgeon. During your consultation at Mr Nigel Horlock’s Southampton cosmetic surgery clinic, he will be able to assess your suitability for the procedure and whether you have realistic expectations about what surgery can achieve.

The Benefits of a Breast Reduction Procedure

Posted by on Mar 11, 2019 in blog | Comments Off on The Benefits of a Breast Reduction Procedure

Having larger, fuller breasts isn’t always considered a good thing. Not only can they lead to embarrassment for some women, but they can also prove to be uncomfortable too. Larger breasts can link to back pain and it can be difficult finding clothing that fits properly. So, in these cases, a breast reduction may be a great option. Here, we’ll look at some the breast reduction benefits you could enjoy.

Breast reduction benefits: relieve neck and back pain

If your breasts are particularly large, they could be causing neck or back pain. This is particularly true if you have quite a small frame. The weight of the breasts can put a lot of pressure onto the neck, back and shoulders, as well as contribute towards poor posture. So, undergoing a breast reduction could help to ease the pain and take a lot of pressure off the body.

Breast reduction benefits: resolve issues with asymmetry

Often, women with larger breasts experience some degree of breast asymmetry. One breast could be larger or smaller than the other, and they may hang slightly differently too. A breast reduction can help to resolve any issues with asymmetry you may have, resulting in a more aesthetically pleasing cleavage. It will help you to achieve a shape and size that you are most comfortable with.

Breast reduction benefits: expect to feel more confident

If your larger breasts impact your confidence, you won’t be experiencing the best quality of life. Having a reduction can help you regain your confidence, enabling you to wear more flattering clothing, partake in activities you may have otherwise avoided, and make you feel much more comfortable within your own skin.

Breast reduction benefits: enjoy perkier breasts

Did you know that having a breast reduction can also give you perkier breasts? All reduction procedures tend to include a breast lift. This means, not only will you get that smaller size that you want, but they will also look perkier too.

Breast reduction benefits: exercise more and breathe better

Bigger breasts can cause a range of issues, and not being able to perform some types of exercises are just one of them. For example, you may find it difficult running, biking, lifting weights or hiking when your breasts are larger. Therefore, having a reduction can open up a wide range of different exercises you can start to do.

As an additional benefit, you’ll also find it much easier to breathe. The weight of larger breasts can place pressure onto the lungs, potentially causing breathing difficulties. After having a reduction, you’ll, therefore, find your breathing is much better, which will, in turn, benefit your overall health.

These are just some of the great benefits a breast reduction procedure can provide. As you can see, the procedure offers both cosmetic and practical benefits. The fact it can also improve your health is definitely a reason to consider having the procedure done. However, before booking a breast reduction, it’s crucial you undergo a consultation to establish whether or not it’s the right option for you.

How Quickly Will I Recover from a Labiaplasty?

Posted by on Feb 23, 2019 in blog | Comments Off on How Quickly Will I Recover from a Labiaplasty?

Undergoing a labiaplasty can be incredibly daunting, but it’s typically a fairly quick and straightforward procedure. Carried out to reduce the size, or appearance of the labia, the procedure has become increasingly popular in recent years.

If you’re considering undergoing a labiaplasty, it’s a good idea to learn everything you can about the procedure, including the recovery process. In order to get the best results, it’s crucial you follow the labiaplasty recovery instructions provided by the surgeon. While each patient’s recovery is slightly different, here, you’ll discover how quickly you can expect to recover from a labiaplasty.

How long will a labiaplasty take to heal?

In total, it usually takes up to six weeks to heal fully from a labiaplasty. For the first few days after the procedure, you may experience some pain and discomfort. You’ll also likely experience bruising and swelling, though pain medication may be prescribed to help make the pain and discomfort more manageable. During these first few days, it’s crucial you get plenty of rest and walk around as little as possible.

Within a week, some bruising and swelling may still persist, but any pain should have largely subsided. You’ll usually be able to return to work within a week, and normal physical activity may be resumed. You may experience a lot of itchiness at this point, though it’s really important to avoid scratching the area while it heals.

Within three to four weeks after the surgery, you’ll be able to resume more strenuous physical activities. If you have dissolvable stitches, these should also have gone by this time. You may still be advised to avoid sexual intercourse and the use of tampons up until week six.

On week six, you should be 90% healed, and you’ll get to see part of the final results of the surgery. However, be aware that you won’t see the full results of the labiaplasty until around four to six months.

Will there be scarring after a labiaplasty?

Minor scarring will be present due to the small incisions made during the surgery. However, you’ll typically find that the scars blend into the labia tissue, as well as hide behind natural folds and wrinkles.

Top labiaplasty recovery tips to follow

The above advice is just a general outlook of what to expect from labiaplasty recovery. All patients recover differently, so it’s important to follow the advice given to you by the surgeon.

You’ll need to make sure you’re attending all of your follow-up appointments, and ensure you wear loose-fitting underwear until you’re fully healed. You may also want to avoid wiping the area with toilet paper, instead washing it with warm water. Ensuring you get plenty of rest is also important, and you may find it more comfortable to use a doughnut pillow during the first week after the surgery.

As you can see, the recovery process of a labiaplasty is fairly straightforward. Provided you follow your surgeon’s post-op advice, you should be fully healed within six weeks. Never try to resume normal activities until your surgeon approves it, otherwise, you could jeopardise the results.

New research into risks of smoking and cosmetic surgery

Posted by on Feb 15, 2019 in blog | Comments Off on New research into risks of smoking and cosmetic surgery

Cosmetic surgery has become extremely popular in today’s society, helping patients to alter or enhance practically any aspect of their appearance. However, as more people choose to go under the knife, it’s become more important than ever before to look into what makes an ideal candidate for surgery.

Did you know that certain lifestyle factors, such as smoking, for example, can impact the success of cosmetic surgery? While it is widely known that surgeons do ask patients to stop smoking prior to their procedure, few people actually know why. Now, new research has been carried out to determine the risks of smoking and cosmetic surgery. Here, we’ll look at what the research revealed, and the risks smoking presents when you go under the knife.

What did the research reveal?

The results of the new research, published within the Aesthetic Surgery Journal in January 2019, revealed that smokers were more likely to experience complications after surgery. Researchers analysed data from 129,007 patients, with just 8.2% of patients claiming to be smokers.

They discovered that smokers were at an increased risk of developing major complications. Those having body procedures, such as buttock augmentation and abdominoplasty procedures, experienced a complication rate of 2.9%, which is slightly higher than the 1.9% risk for non-smokers. The most significant risks identified were in smokers who underwent thigh lifts, with a major complication risk of 23.8% compared to just a 3.6% risk for non-smokers.

It was also revealed that smoking increased the risk of infections in the wound by a staggering 61%. Interestingly, there wasn’t an increased risk identified in smokers undergoing breast or facial cosmetic procedures.

Understanding nicotine and tissue necrosis

Surgeons have long known that smoking increases the risk of complications, which is why they always advise patients to stop smoking before and after the procedure. The question is, why does smoking increase the risks?

The main problem smoking can lead to after cosmetic surgery, is tissue necrosis. Although it is rare, smokers do need to be aware of the risks if they don’t quit prior to and after the procedure. It occurs when nicotine reduces, or completely stops, the blood flow to the tissues that were operated on. In the worst-case scenario, this can cause the tissue to die and simply fall off.

Combined procedures should be avoided

The new research also reveals the dangers of smokers undergoing combined procedures. Surgeons are advised to be wary of carrying out combined facial and body procedures on smokers due to the high risks involved. However, more research is required in order to establish better recommendations and to optimise outcomes.

Overall, this new research does confirm that smoking can have a direct impact on the results of a procedure, as well as increasing the risks of complications. Therefore, patients should strongly follow their surgeon’s advice in relation to quitting smoking before the procedure. Even after the procedure, it’s crucial to stop smoking until the wound has completely healed.

For more advice on how best to prepare for a cosmetic surgery procedure, call 02380 914504 to arrange a cosmetic surgery consultation with Mr Horlock.

Fit for cosmetic surgery? 3 health considerations you should take into account

Posted by on Jan 22, 2019 in blog | Comments Off on Fit for cosmetic surgery? 3 health considerations you should take into account

Thanks to significant improvements within the industry over the past decade, cosmetic surgery is now considered a largely safe and common thing to have done. However, even the non-surgical procedures can still present numerous risks.

If you’re thinking of undergoing cosmetic surgery, there’s a lot of factors you’ll need to consider. One of which, is whether you’re actually fit enough for the surgery. Here, you’ll discover three health considerations you should take into account before opting to go under the knife.

  1. Your BMI

If you want to get the best possible outcome from your surgery, your BMI should ideally be below 30. Patients who are overweight are more susceptible to the risks and complications of surgery. Not only does the procedure itself pose more of a risk if you’re carrying excess weight, but the anaesthesia is riskier too.

So, if you are overweight, it would be a good idea to lose some before going under the knife. That way, the risks will be greatly reduced and you’re more likely to recover quickly.

  1. Existing health conditions

If you suffer from existing health conditions, these will need to be taken into account before you have cosmetic surgery. The two main conditions to be mindful of are diabetes and asthma.

If you suffer from diabetes, it can lead to issues with either high or low blood glucose after the surgery. This can impact how quickly the wounds heal. So, you’ll need to make sure your blood glucose levels are well controlled going into the surgery.

Those with asthma will also need to make sure the condition is under control. If it’s not, you could experience a flare up either during or after the surgery. It’s best to see your doctor a week prior to the surgery to ensure you’re in the best possible health to go ahead with it.

  1. Smoking and drinking

If you smoke, you’re going to need to stop at least six weeks prior to the surgery. You’ll also need to continue to not smoke for six weeks after the surgery. There have been a lot of studies carried out which have shown smokers need an average of 33% more anaesthetic and 23% more pain medication after surgery than non-smokers. Nicotine is known to constrict the blood vessels and restrict blood supply to the tissues and organs which can significantly slow down wound healing.

If you drink a lot of alcohol, you’ll also want to quit approximately two weeks before the surgery. Alcohol increases the risk of bleeding and can negatively interact with the anaesthetic. So, quitting a couple of weeks before going under the knife is a sensible idea.

The above are just three health considerations to take into account before undergoing cosmetic surgery. Your plastic surgeon will be able to assess your general health and make recommendations on anything you’ll need to improve before undergoing cosmetic surgery, which is why the cosmetic surgery consultation is such an important part of the process.

RealSelf release list of 2018’s most researched cosmetic surgery ops

Posted by on Jan 14, 2019 in blog | Comments Off on RealSelf release list of 2018’s most researched cosmetic surgery ops

Leading cosmetic surgery information site RealSelf, has revealed a list of the most researched cosmetic surgery ops in 2018. Entitled ‘The RealSelf 2018 Aesthetics Trend Report’, it highlights the increase in popularity of non-surgical procedures such as anti-wrinkle injections and dermal fillers. It also goes on to list the top ten surgical procedures researched throughout the year.

Here, we’ll look at the results of the report, along with some of the key procedures patients are most interested in.

Most popular cosmetic surgery procedures

  • Breast augmentation: It’s unsurprising breast augmentation was one of the most researched procedures in 2018. It has been one of the more popular surgical procedures carried out for decades. These days, the techniques used to enhance the breasts have changed dramatically, with more natural methods favoured.
  • Tummy tuck: The abdominoplasty also remains a popular procedure, enabling patients to eliminate excess skin and fat in the abdominal area. It provides more significant results than liposuction alone, though it should never be used as a replacement for proper diet and exercise.
  • Brazilian butt lift: One of the newest procedures to trend last year was the Brazilian Butt Lift. Celebrities such as Kim Kardashian made the procedure famous, though patients do need to be aware that it comes with significant risks and the advice from leading plastic surgery organisation is not to undergo this procedure at this time.
  • Rhinoplasty: Nose jobs are another procedure which has remained consistently popular over the years. Rhinoplasty procedures can help to alter the size, shape and volume of the nose. When performed correctly, a rhinoplasty can change your entire facial appearance and the results are long-lasting.
  • Liposuction: When it comes to fat removal, liposuction is one of the best procedures to have done. However, these days most surgeons focus on targeted liposuction which aims to contour the body, rather than eliminate a large amount of excess fat. If you are considering having liposuction, you need to understand that it isn’t designed to help you shed a lot of weight. Instead, it is better used to combat stubborn pockets of fat which aren’t shifting with diet and exercise alone.
  • Eyelid surgery: Eyelid lift surgery is designed to reduce bagginess under the eyes, as well as remove excess skin from the top eyelid. It can be particularly useful for older patient as it can help to improve the eyesight.
  • Breast reduction: While many patients are still opting for breast enlargements, there’s an increasing number of people looking to reduce the size of their breasts. A breast reduction can be useful for those suffering from aches and pains due to larger breasts. It’s also a popular choice for those seeking a more natural, balanced look.

These are just some of the most popular cosmetic procedures consumers researched throughout 2018. If you are interested in undergoing any of the procedures featured above, book a consultation with an expert surgeon today. They will help you to establish whether you actually need the procedure, and the risks and complications you need to be aware of.

WWI and its impact on cosmetic surgery

Posted by on Dec 17, 2018 in blog | Comments Off on WWI and its impact on cosmetic surgery

Cosmetic surgery has become deeply ingrained within society today, allowing us to change practically any aspect of our appearance. From rhinoplasty and liposuction to breast augmentation or the facelift – there’s a huge choice of procedures available. However, did you know that many of the procedures that are so popular today, were developed and benefited greatly from advances made in World War I?

Here, we’ll look at how WWI impacted cosmetic surgery, turning it into the phenomenon it is today.

How modern cosmetic surgery was born

The events of World War I had a horrific impact on humanity and have recently been the focus of much renewed interest as we celebrate the 100 year anniversary of the end of the war. Although the exact figure is unknown, it is estimated that a staggering 20 million lost their lives and a further 21 million were wounded. It was the worst event in human history and surgeons were required to develop new techniques in order to deal with the catastrophic injuries presented.

By the time the war had ended, 735,487 British troops were discharged due to severe injuries. Of these, 16% of the injuries affected the face, with over a third being classified as severe. This often left the survivor with serious deformities, making it difficult for them to eat, drink and even breathe properly.

WWI's impact on cosmetic surgeryIt was Harold Gillies, a young New Zealand Ear, Nose and Throat surgeon, who decided to develop new techniques to repair these severe deformities. So, in 1916, he set up the first plastic surgery centre in Aldershot within the Cambridge Military Hospital. Expecting around 200 patients upon its opening, Gillies was instead met with over 2000 patients to treat.

A process of trial and error

Although some work that was carried out at the centre was based on previous work in India, the majority of techniques were developed via trial and error. This led to one of the main techniques, the pedicle skin graft, to be introduced.

The graft involved separating a piece of skin without detaching it, from a healthy area of the body. It was then stitched inside a tube, before being attached to the affected area. The patient would need to wait for a set amount of time for the blood flow to develop before the suture was detached and the tube was opened for the flat skin to be stitched over the area.

The results from this procedure weren’t perfect, but they did drastically improve the lives of the injured soldiers. Even after the war ended, procedures were carried out for years and they were continuously improved.

The advancement of anaesthesia

Another of the major developments in the field of cosmetic surgery was in anaesthesia. Due to the level of work required to repair severe facial and head injuries, better anaesthetic was required to make the procedures bearable. Anaesthesia was actually developed into a speciality area and the people administering it were properly trained.

A properly trained and qualified cosmetic surgeon in the UK is known as a plastic and reconstructive surgeon as the latter will inform and enhance surgery performed for aesthetic improvements to the face or body.

Mr Horlock's NHS practice is based in the regional plastics unit at Salisbury District Hospital. He covers Salisbury, Southampton and Dorchester. He sees patients in his private practice at Southampton, Salisbury, Dorchester.

Spire Southampton Hospital
Chalybeate Close,
S016 6UY
Julie Martin: 02380 764 969